(v) He stated that earth is round & rotates on its own axis. As regards to his foreign expeditions, he was seen as a great failure. He was highly educated and was well versed in Arabic and Persian language. Takshila and Varanasi emerged as the centres for medicinal learning. Question 6:Which of the following vessel(s) or ship(s) was/were used in warfare during ancient times? Even contemporary historians like Barani and Ibn Batuta have expressed opposite views about the character and achievements of the Sultan. (vii) Kanada → material world is made up of lam a which cannot be seen through human organ. Thus, he also supported the version of Iban Batuta. 1699: Khalsa was established by Guru Gobind Singh. Nava TalaD. According to Ibn Batuta “A search was made and a blind man and a cripple man were found. (xvi) Propounded earth cloud theory in his book Brihat Samhita. Both lunar and solar calendars were in use. In 1337 Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq sent a huge army to invade Karajal. A. SulvasutraB. Peasants were paying the land revenue tax almost the half of the produce since the time of Ala-ud-din Khilzi. He was well read in the subjects of religion, philosophy, astronomy, mathematics, medicine and logic. Introduction of token currency was another bold experiment of the Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. (v) Indian philosophers conceived the idea of splitting an atom. His coronation ceremony was duly performed in the Red Palace of Balban. The Yadavas were driven to the north of the Malaprabha and Krishna rivers, which formed the Yadava-Hoysala border for the next two decades. They even did not hesitate to use force while collecting the tax. But professor Habibullah and others have given almost the different views. Present form of Judo & karate originated from it. (iii) Atharva Veda- first book to mention diseases, its cure & medicines → said that diseases were caused by demons & spirits entering into human body & can be cured by magical charms and spells. Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev chapter (including extra questions, long questions, short questions, mcq) can be found on EduRev, you can check The cripple man has put to death while the blind man was tied with the tail of horse and was dragged to Daulatabad where only his one leg reached.”. EduRev is like a wikipedia However the people were asked to shift. He had exhibited lack of wisdom and commonsense in these expeditions. Akbar the Great's Tomb and Fort (iv) 19th Century- James Taylor translated Lilavati & made it known to people across the globe. Batuta says, the citizens of Delhi used to write letters containing abuses and scandals to the Sultan. A regular postal service was established between Delhi and Daulatabad. AgramandiraD. Though the scheme failed disastrously during his reign, yet it had a long term impact. In spite of this he was misunderstood by his subjects. A. RhinoplastyB. Further from military point of view, he was an excellent commander and during the time of Sultan Mubarak Shaha Khiliji he was promoted to the rank of the master of the horse from an ordinary soldier. He was interested also in astronomy, and in 1407 started work on an observatory near Daulatabad. You can see some Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev sample questions with examples at the bottom of this page. A. ApastambaB. 46.Who among the following Sultan built an observatory at Daulatabad? (iii) Last miniscule matter which could not be further subdivided- Parmanu. (xii) Sawai Jai Singh MEDICINE (i) Vedic times → Ashwini Kumars were practisioners of medicine & were given divine status. Both lunar and solar calendars were in use. Secondly, the officers lacked experience which accounted for bad planning or faulty implementation. in Mysore were the main Islamic kingdoms in Karnataka. Firoz Shah was one of the most learned of Indian sovereigns. The Estimate of Sultan Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq: While making an estimate of Sultan Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq’s character and achievements, historians have strongly differed and have expressed diametrically opposite views. Yukti-kalpataru specifies one class of ships called agramandira (because they had their cabins towards the prows), as eminently adapted for naval warfare (rane kale ghanatyaye). (xi) Ain-i-Akbari- “regulation of perfume office” of Akbar. But while implementing it he did a mistake by not choosing a fertile land for this purpose. Muhammad Bin Tughlaq just after the death of his father, declared himself as the Sultan in Tughlaqabad and after staying 40 days there, he proceeded to Delhi where he was greeted by the people as well as the Nobles. (iv) Town planning of Harappa indicates a good knowledge of measurement & geometry. Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq’s predecessors depended on gold and silver coins as medium of exchange. Its reign started in 1320 in Delhi when Ghazi Malik assumed the throne under the title of Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq.The dynasty ended in 1413. Bile, 2. In Daulatabad, an observatory was established by Firoz Shah Bahmani under Hakim Hussain Gilani and Syed Muhammad Kazimi. This also came at a time when the Doab was at the verge of a famine. Question 5:Who of the following was an alchemist or chemist by profession in ancient era? 1674: Shivaji crowned himself at Raigarh. It is said that it was a conspiracy on the part of Muhammad-bin Tughlaq who was impatient for power. During my ten days in the city I took it upon myself to… They were asked to grow different crops in rotation. (ii) Book Siddhanta Shiromani is divided into four sections:- Lilavati (dealing with Arithmetic)- Beejganita (dealing with Algebra)- Goladhyaya (about spheres)- Grahaganita (mathematics of planets. Nobody was allowed to stay at Delhi. They are the only sources of knowledge of Indian mathematics from the Vedic period. An astronomical observation post was established by Firoz Shah Tughlaq. Both (a) & (b)D. Neither (a) nor (b)ExplanationThe era of practical and more rational cure to diseases emerged around 600 BC. A large number of officers and guards were appointed to look after the project. (x) Casting of cannons- explicitly mentioned in Tujuk-i-Baburi. (xiii) In field of geology’, hydrology and ecology, the contribution of Varahamihira (Gupta period & one of nine gems in court of Vikramaditya) cannot be forgotten-^his predictions were so accurate that king Vikramaditya awarded him with title of “Varaha”. Babar conquered Ibrahim Lodi, the last Delhi Sultanate in 1526, and established the Mughal Empire (known to them as Gurkani). Lilavati 2. (iv) Ships were primarily classified into two classes:- Samanya (Ordinary class)- Vishesha (special class)(v) Ordinary class^for sea voyage & had two types of ships:(a) Dirgha type of ship - long and narrow hull(b) Unnata type of ship - higher hull(vi) As per length & position of cabins, ships were classified into:(a) Sarvamandira vessels - cabins extending from one end of deck to another, used for transportation of royal voyage & horses. To Study Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev for UPSC Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev notes for UPSC is made by best teachers who have written some of the best books of That is why right from the beginning of his rule; he decided to take some bold reformative measures for the improvement as well as safeguard of the country. in the north of Karnataka and the interregnum of Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan(1761-1799 C.E.) (a) Vasco-da- Gama (b) Don Almaida (c) Albuquerque (d) Duplex A. ArithmeticB. Only (i)B. The fort of Daulatabad came under the new Sultanate of Ahmadnagar, which covered western Maharashtra, and recruited Maratha chieftains in its army. Welcome to HistoryDiscussion.net! UPSC Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev Summary and Exercise are very important for (i) and (iii)B. But on the other hand historians like Gardiner Brown and Dr. Iswari Prasad have described Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq with high sounding words and do not believe that he was suffering from insanity. Marathas. The object of his taxation policy in the Doab was to increase the military resources. 1665: Treaty of Purandar – between Shivaji and Jai Singh (on behalf of Aurangzeb) 1666: Shivaji escaped from Azeb’s detention. Firuz Shah Bahmani encouraged the pursuit of astronomy and built an observatory near Daulatabad. (iii) In India, it was called Rasayan Shastra, Rasatantra, Rasa Vidya & Rasakriya, all of which means science of liquids. Production of paer is not known in the ancient India. Following Mohammed’s death in 1206, Qutb ud-din Aibak became the first sultan of Delhi. Takshila and Varanasi emerged as the centres for medicinal learning. His increase of tax in the fertile Doab region was not at all in-correct. In 1328, Daulatabad was completely taken over by the Sultanate of Delhi and was established as a capital of Tughlaq dynasty for the coming two years. perfect preparation. He could have shifted only the official seats and officers and courtiers but not the entire people of Delhi. As a ruler he had the every right to increase tax in-order-to meet the day to day expenditures of the country. Question 8:Chaturanga, a sport in ancient times is presently played by the name- A. JudoB. The governors of the provinces were directed to submit the documents showing their incomes and expenditures and other necessary materials for the compilation work. He built astronomical observatory at Daulatabad. Daulatabad remained an important fort in the sultanate; a Bahmani minister, Mahmud Gavan, started the construction of an observatory at Daulatabad, but after his murder the Bahmani Sultanate broke up. (ii) Areas of application of chemistry:- Metallurgy (smelting of metals)- Distillation of perfumes- Making of dyes and pigments Extraction of sugar Production of paper.- Production of gunpowder.- Casting of canons, etc. Among other public works he under took the construction of an Observatory on the chain of hills near Daulatabad called Balaghat which … (ii) Theological folklore of Hinduism- Satyanarayan Puja talks of sea merchant who was caught in a storm & prayed that if he is saved then he will offer puja to Lord Satyanarayana. Muhammad- bin-Tughlaq introduced bronze coins in place of silver and gold but there remained certain defects which made him a big failure in this experiment. of Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev for UPSC, the answers and examples explain the meaning of chapter in the best manner. A broad road was constructed for their convenience. (ix) Aryabhatta’s theories on eclipse- distinct departure from orthodox theories of astrology. (viii) Famous Sports of India in ancient times:(a) Kalaripayat: martial art from Kerala which was transmitted to China in 5th century BC by a sage called Bodhidharma. The document Nitin Singhania: Summary of Science and Technology Through The Ages UPSC Notes | EduRev is a part of the. He was surely one of the extraordinary kings. A huge amount of forged coins entered into market and government treasury as those were minted secretly by private parties. 4) He encouraged the pursuit of Astronomy and built an observatory near Daulatabad. The Mughals were powerful Muslim warriors from the Eurasian Steppe, led by Babar, a descendant of Persia's great conqueror Tamerlane and Mongolia's Ghengis Khan (that's a bad-ass bloodline!). All facilities were provided for those who were required to migrate to Daulatabad. The department’s main work was to find out uncultivated lands and make all sorts of arrangements for the cultivation of horse lands. Compass of the ship – Machayantra or fish machine(in the shape of a fish). But lb Batuta gives a complete different reason for this transfer of capital. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. Rasaratnakara 3. He was highly ambitious and was a man of high moral character. It was definitely a praise-worthy step of Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq. MachayantraExplanationSome of the Sanskrit terminologies used during ancient times for various parts of the ship are: Keel of the ship - Nava tala Compass of the ship – Machayantra or fish machine(in the shape of a fish). (i) Buddhist monks from India took Ayurveda system to Tibet & China. The inscriptions of this dynasty, as well as those of contemporary kingdoms, the Hoysala, Kakatiya dynasty and Western Chalukyas call them Seunas. Mehendra Suri, a court astronomer of Firoz Shah developed an astronomical instrument calledYantraja.ParameshvaraandMahabhaskariyawerefamousfamiliesofastronomers and almanac … After a couple of years, Muhammad Tughlaq decided to abandon Daulatabad because he realized the fact that just as he could not control the South from Delhi in the same way he could not control North from Daulatabad. (vii) Lilavati- translated into Persian by Faizi. Question 7:Which of the following was/were centres of medicinal learning during ancient times? (xix) Saltpetre, sulphur & charcoal were used in different ratios to produce different varieties of gunpowder. Charak Samhita- deals with use of plants & herbs for medicinal purposes.- mainly deals with Ayurveda as a science with following eight components(a) Kaya Chikitsa (General Medicine)(b) Kaumara-Bhrtya (Paediatrics) a Shalya Chikitsa (Surgery)(c) Salakya Tantra (Ophthalmology/ENT)(d) Bata Vidya (Demonology/Psychiatry)(e) Agada Tantra (Toxicology)(f) Rasayana Tantra (Elixirs)(g) Vajikarana Tantra (Aphrodisiacs)- extensive note on digestion, metabolism & immune system.- he emphasised on three Doshas: 1. But during the time Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq a huge quantity of coins was required for various transactions and there was a dearth of gold and silver coins in the country. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. KarateC. Yukti Kalpa Taru : The treatise gives a technocratic exposition on the techniques of shipbuilding, providing minute details on various types of ships, their sizes along with materials from which they were built. Smith have agreed that the Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq was affected by some degree of insanity. Griffith's objective was to make astronomy accessible by the public, as opposed to the prevailing idea that observatories should be located on remote … MadhyamandiraC. He lost both men and money in both the expeditions of Khurassan and Karajal. Production of paper 4. Further, people made payments to the government with new bronze coins and hoarded gold and silver. A regular postal service was established between Delhi and Daulatabad. According to Standly Lane-poole, “Daulatabad was a monument of misdirected energy.”. EduRev is a knowledge-sharing community that depends on everyone being able to pitch in when they know something. He was very kind and generous to the poor and pandits and was very unkind and cruel. They are the only sources of knowledge of Indian mathematics from the Vedic period. In spite of high qualification and knowledge, Sultan Muhamad-bin- Tughlaq suffered from certain qualities of hastiness and impatience that is why many of his experiments failed and he has been called an ill starred idealist. Muhammad-bin-Tughluq next to Alluddin Khilzi was the greatest sultan of Delhi who is best remembered for his bold experiments and innovative thought in the field of administration as well as in agriculture. Considering all those factors he decided to introduce a bronze coin which was to have the same value as the silver tanka. The untimely death of Hakim Hashim Gilani, the astronomer who was to supervise the observatory, put an end to the project. The government treasury was filled with bronze or copper coins. (viii) Jyotisa part of Aryabhattiya- deals with astronomical definitions, method of determining true position of planets, movement of Sun & Moon and calculation of eclipses. (xv) He gave a list of six animals & thirty-six plants which could indicate presence of water. A. (x) Arabs called mathematics “Hindisat” or Indian art. The Yukti Kalpa Taru sums up in a condensed form all the available information. He also did it in order to consolidate the newly conquered states of south. They became the means of spreading in the Deccan the cultural, religious and social ideas which the turks had brought with them to north India. When he was inspecting an elephant parade standing on a pavilion at Tughluqabad, the Pavilion collapsed and the Sultan along with his second son Muhammad Khan crushed under it and died. In retaliation, Mahmud Ghazni (998-1030 AD) made 17 raids on India; 1001 AD: Mahmud defeated Jayapala and took him prisoner but released. Almost like Don Quixote in Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Legends recorded by Al-Biruni in the eleventh century say that he was born in the village of Daihak near in Gujarat "one hundred years ago," i.e., at the start of the tenth century. Further against the Mongols, the Sultan Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq felt weak as he had neglected the defence of the north­western frontier. Chemistry(i) It developed in phases through experimentation. GeometryExplanationBijaganita was Indian mathematician Bhaskara II's treatise on algebra. Diseases, their pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, treatment, and complications are described in such a depth that it leaves us wondering as to how Sushruta could have developed precise clinical skills simultaneously in all parts of medical science including medicine, surgery, plastic surgery, anaesthesia, ophthalmology, midwifery, genetics, anatomy, and diabetes. (xii) Sawai Jai SinghMEDICINE(i) Vedic times → Ashwini Kumars were practisioners of medicine & were given divine status. Yukti Kalpa Taru Which of the above is/are related to shipbuilding? In 1329,[///*** After all Tughluq was educated! But he failed to keep an effective control over its minting. Phlegm & 3. Though the inhabitants of Delhi were unwilling to leave their dear land of birth, they had to obey the Sultan’s order. He was the eldest son of Ghiyas -ud -Din -Tughlaq, the founder of the Tughluq dynasty.His wife was the daughter of the Raja of Dipalpur. He was also a good calligraphist. So his transfer of capital with the entire population of Delhi was a blunder. A. Karajal was a Hindu kingdom located between India and China. The era of practical and more rational cure to diseases emerged around 600 BC. 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